Shoulders, Anterior (1:12 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side..

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:12.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the shoulders.

Plane of focus: At the level of the shoulders or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:12 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:12, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the shoulders are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the shoulder. Have the patient stand whenever possible to photograph the shoulders.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the shoulders if 60-mm macros lens or less is used. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Shoulders, Posterior (1:12 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side..

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:12.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the posterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the shoulders.

Plane of focus: At the level of the shoulders or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:12 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:12, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the shoulders are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the shoulder. Have the patient stand whenever possible to photograph the shoulders.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the shoulders if 60-mm macros lens or less is used. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Shoulder, Anterior (1:10 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side..

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the shoulder.

Plane of focus: At the level of the shoulder or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the shoulders are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the shoulder. Have the patient stand whenever possible to photograph the shoulders.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the shoulder. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Shoulder, Posterior (1:10 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side..

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the posterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the shoulder.

Plane of focus: At the level of the shoulder or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the shoulders are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the shoulder. Have the patient stand whenever possible to photograph the shoulders.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the shoulder. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Shoulder, Oblique (1:10 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side..

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the oblique thorax at a 45° angle to the mid-sagittal plane.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the oblique shoulder.

Plane of focus: At the level of the shoulder or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the shoulders are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the shoulder. Have the patient stand whenever possible to photograph the shoulders.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the shoulder. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Shoulder, Lateral (1:10 Vertical)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side..

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the lateral thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the lateral shoulder.

Plane of focus: At the level of the shoulder or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the shoulders are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the shoulder. Have the patient stand whenever possible to photograph the shoulders.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the shoulder. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.