Head, Anterior

 

Patient position: The patient sits upright and looks straight ahead.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority with an aperture setting of f22 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the anterior face.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the anterior face.

Plane of focus: At the level of the face or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the face is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. The center of the frame is just above the tip of the nose in the adult patient. Ensure that the camera is level with the face.

Common mistakes: The most common mistake is in the chin positioned too high or too low. Another is leaving the flash in the hot shoe, which does not evenly illuminate the face. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Do not let the camera's autofocus system focus on the bridge of the nose rather than on the face. Remedy this problem by turning off the autofocus system.

 

 

Head, Lateral

Patient position: The patient sits upright and looks straight ahead.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal, however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure settings: Aperture priority with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the lateral face.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top or side of the barrel of the lens directed at the lateral face.

Plane of focus: At the level of lateral face or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera close to or father from the subject until the lateral face is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. The center of the frame is just in front of the external auditory canal. Ensure that the camera is level with the face.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the face. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of vision unless they are part of the pathology or injury.

 

 

Head, Oblique

 

 

Patient position: The patient sits upright and looks straight ahead.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format parallel to an imaginary plane that extends 45° from the anterior face. A 45° obliqueangle can be approximated by positioning the camera so that the bridge of the nose just obscures the medial canthus of the distal eye.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top or side of the barrel of the lens directed at the oblique face.

Plane of focus: At the level of the oblique face or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the oblique face is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. The center of the frame is the prominence of the cheek bone. Ensure that the camera is level with the face.

Common mistakes: Shooting the image at too shallow an angle is a common mistake. Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does nto evenly illuminate the face. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury.

 

 

Head, Posterior

 

Patient position: The patient sits upright and looks straight ahead.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue or gray color is ideal: however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure settings: Aperture priority with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on plane parallel to the back of the head.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top or side of the barrel of the lens directed at the back of the head.

Plane of focus: At the level of the back of the head or pathology.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the back of the head is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the back of the head. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury.

 

 

Head, Inferior

 

Patient position: The patient sits upright and tilts his or her head back as far as comfortably possible.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format and positioned inferiorly at an angle so that the zygomatic arches and supraorbital ridges are seen clearly.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top or side of the barrel of the lends directed at the inferior aspect of the head.

Plane of focus: At the level of the zygomatic arches.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the zygomatic arches are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. The center of the frame is the nose.

Common mistakes: Shooting the image at too shallow an angle. Leaving the flash int eh hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the inferior head. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury.

 

 

Head, Superior

 

Patient position: The patient sits upright and tilts his or her head back as far as comfortably possible.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format and positioned superiorly at an angle so that the supraorbital ridges and zygomatic arches are seen clearly.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lends directed at the superior aspect of the head.

Plane of focus: At the level of the supraorbital ridges.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the supraorbital ridges are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. The center of the frame is the mid-forehead.

Common mistakes: Shooting the image at too shallow an angle. Leaving the flash in the hot show does not evenly illuminate the superior head. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury.