Both Eyes, Anterior (1:4 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient sits upright with his or her head against a wall or headrest of a dental chair, looking straight ahead.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:4.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the face.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera above the lens directed toward both eyes.

Plane of focus: At the level of the eyes.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:4 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:4, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the eyes are in clear focus, and shooting the photograph. Minimize the number of corneal reflections by turning off as many room lights as possible.

Common mistakes: A ring flash is generally not recommended for eye photography because of the large light reflections from the corneas. Do not let the camera's autofocus system focus on the bridge of the nose rather than on the eyes. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may result in photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Eye and Adnexa (1:2 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient sits upright with his or her head against a wall or headrest of a dental chair, looking straight ahead.

Background: A background is not required in photographs of the eye at 1:2 reproduction.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:2.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the face.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the barrel of the lens on teh temporal side and directed at the eye.

Plane of focus: At the level of the cornea. Reflections are smallest and sharpest when correct focus is obtained.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:2 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:2, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the cornea is in clear focus, and shooting the photograph. Minimize the number of corneal reflections by turning off as many room lights as possible. A monopod may provide added stability to the camera system. Ensure that the camera is level with the eye.

Common mistakes: Shooting on program or automatic exposure mode results in images with poor depth of field. A ring light creates unwanted reflections from the cornea. Placement of the flash along the top of the lens in shots of patients with large eyebrows results in unwanted shadows on the globe.

 

 

Single Eye, Anterior (1:1 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient sits upright with his or her head against a wall or headrest of a dental chair, looking straight ahead.

Background: A background is not required in photographs of the eye at 1:1 reproduction.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:1.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the face.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the barrel of the lens on the side opposite the pathology.

Plane of focus: At the level of the cornea. Reflections are smallest and sharpest when correct focus is obtained.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:1 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:1, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the cornea is in clear focus, and shooting the photograph. Minimize the number of corneal reflections by turning off as many room lights as possible. A monopod may provide added stability to the camera system. If the primary pathology involves the cornea, the flash is directed from the opposite side of the pathology to avoid covering the pathology with a reflection. Cotton-tipped applicators help to expose scleral or inner lip pathology. Ensure that the camera is level with the eye.

Common mistakes: Shooting on program or automatic exposure mode results in images with poor depth of field. A ring light creates unwanted reflections from the cornea. Leaving the flash in the hot shoe results in a poorly illuminated photograph.

 

 

Single Eye, Lateral (1:1 Vertical)

Patient position: The patient sits upright with his or her head against a wall or headrest of a dental chair, looking straight ahead.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:1.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the plane of the nose.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera directed toward the eye from the front of the patient.

Plane of focus: At the level of the anterior cornea. The anterior curvature of the cornea should be in sharp focus.

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:1 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:1, moving the camera closer to or farther from the subject until the cornea is in clear focus,and shooting the photograph. A monopod may provide added stability to the camera system. Because even slight movement may render the image out of focus, take several photographs to ensure that at least  one will be focused perfectly. Ensure that the camera is level with the eye.

Common mistakes: Shooting on program or automatic exposure mode results in images with poor depth of field. Leaving the flash in the hot shoe results in a poorly illuminated photograph.