Breasts, Anterior, Arms Down (1:10 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breasts.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breasts or pathology. The center of the frame is the sternum at the level of the nipples

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breasts are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the breasts. Have the patient stand, whenever possible, to photograph the breasts.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breasts if a 60-mm macro lens or less is used. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Do not let the camera's autofocus system focus at the level of the sternum rather than on the breast pathology. This problem is resolved by placing the lens on manual focus. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Breasts, Anterior, Arms Up (1:10 Horizontal)

 

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the hands placed behind the head.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breasts.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breasts or pathology. The center of the frame is the sternum at the level of the nipples

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breasts are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the breasts. 

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breasts if a 60-mm macro lens or less is used. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Do not let the camera's autofocus system focus at the level of the sternum rather than on the breast pathology. This problem is resolved by placing the lens on manual focus. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Breasts, Superior (1:10 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands bent at the waist as far over as comfortable. The breasts hang downward in front of a drape suspended between two poles or assistants.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the suspended breasts.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breasts.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breasts or pathology. 

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breasts are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. Ensure that the camera is level with the breasts. 

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breasts. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Breasts, Inferior  (1:10 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient lies flat on a gurney or examination table. A drape is placed over the patient's waist, and another drape is suspended between two poles between the patient's head and breasts.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:10.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the suspended drape. The photographer stands at the foot of the gurney, shooting at a narrow angle toward the inferior breasts.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breasts.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breasts or pathology. 

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:10 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:10, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breasts are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph. 

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breasts. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Breast, Nipple (1:2 Horizontal)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms out of view.

Background: The background is the surrounding breast.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:2.

Camera position: The camera is held in the horizontal format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the nipple.

Plane of focus: At the level of the nipple. 

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:2 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:2, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breasts are in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph.  Ensure that the camera is level with the nipple. Texture lighting helps to demonstrate a contour abnormality if present.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breast. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. 

 

 

Breast, Anterior, Arms Down (1:8 Vertical)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the arms relaxed at the side.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:8.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breast.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breast or pathology. 

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:8 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:8, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breast is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph.  Ensure that the camera is level with the breast.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breast. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Breast, Anterior, Arms Up (1:8 Vertical)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the hands placed behind the head.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:8.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the anterior thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breast.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breast or pathology. 

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:8 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:8, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breast is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph.  Ensure that the camera is level with the breast.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breast. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.

 

 

Breast, Lateral (1:8 Vertical)

Patient position: The patient stands upright with the hands placed behind the head.

Background: A uniform background is desired. A black, blue, or gray color is ideal; however, white is acceptable.

Film: ASA 100 or 200 Ektachrome.

Exposure setting: Aperture priority mode with an aperture setting of f11 or smaller (f16 or f22).

Reproduction ratio: 1:8.

Camera position: The camera is held in the vertical format on a plane parallel to the lateral thorax.

Flash position: The flash is held off-camera along the top of the barrel of the lens directed at the breast.

Plane of focus: At the level of the breast or pathology. 

Tips: A precise reproduction ratio of 1:8 is obtained by placing the camera on manual focus, moving the focus ring to a reproduction ratio of 1:8, moving the camera closer to or father from the subject until the breast is in sharp focus, and shooting the photograph.  Ensure that the camera is level with the breast.

Common mistakes: Leaving the flash in the hot shoe does not evenly illuminate the breast. Remove distractions such as clothing, patient gown, and jewelry from the field of view unless they are part of the pathology or injury. Using the automatic or program exposure modes may produce photographs with poor depth of field.